Glaciology - the science of ice in all its varieties. By main object of study glaciology is divided into several sectors: lednikovedenie, snegovedenie, lavinovedenie, glaciology ponds and streams, paleoglaciology.

As an independent branch of knowledge glaciology began to take shape by the end of XVIII - the beginning of the XIX century on the basis of geology and hydrology. Initially, the concept of "glaciology" associated only with the study of mountain glaciers and ice sheets of the Arctic and Antarctica.

Beginning as a science of glaciology glacier put the Swiss scientist Saussure O. writing "Journey to the Alps" (1779-96). In the XIX century. there has been a general range of problems of glaciology, but systematic materials about glaciers lacked research methods were primitive, but knowledge about the physics of ice - enough. Therefore, the first stage of development of glaciology was mainly descriptive and was characterized by the accumulation of information, mainly about the forms of glaciation of temperate climate. Many patterns of mountain glaciers are not always reasonably apply to all other types of glaciers.

With the development of scientific knowledge and improved methods of studying the ice. The biggest achievement of glaciologists in the 21st century is deservedly considered the Antarctic ice drilling by Russian scientists: in 2013 they reached the surface of the largest subglacial lake in the world - the East, which took drilled to a depth of 3750 meters.

The study of these ancient and unspoilt ice will help to better understand the history of our planet, and perhaps explain some of the mysteries of nature.